Lingerie History: The Underwire Story of Howard Hughes

Howard Hughes ProfileAfter Mary Phelps Jacobs successfully introduced her “Backless Brassiere” in 1910s, many people tried to enhance it and make it more useful not just in covering and supporting a woman’s breasts but accentuating their shape underneath the clothes she is wearing. Howard Hughes was one of those people who tried to make a new type of brassiere in 1940s. Hughes is not actually a designer, he was a film director; but while directing a movie, he saw the need to create an underwire push-up bra for the leading actress. A very wealthy Hollywood socialite in the early 1940s, Howard Hughes is an American business tycoon who is also an aviator, aerospace engineer, a film producer and a director. During his lifetime, Hughes was considered as one of the wealthiest people in the world.

In 1941, Hughes produced and directed a movie called The Outlaw. The story of the movie centers on the rivalrous friendship between Billy the Kid, Doc Holiday, and Pat Garret. All three were fighting over possession of a stallion and a sultry Mexican girl Rio McDonald who was portrayed by 19-year old Jane Russell.  The movie became a Hollywood gossip because of Russell’s erotic scenes, which actually helped in publicizing it. The Outlaw was Jane Russell’s first shot in show business and after the movie was released in 1943, she became a star overnight. The movie was also Jane Russell’s stepping stone in becoming America’s sex symbol in the 1950s and 1960s; her voluptuous figure was emphasized all throughout Hughes’ The Outlaw.

Jane Russell

Jane Russell was a promising girl; Hughes sensed that. With measurements of 38D-24-36 and standing 5’7 ft, she was definitely a beauty to behold and Hughes believed that she had the potential to become America’s next superstar. However, while filming The Outlaw in 1941, Hughes felt the camera did little to emphasize Russell’s large bust. Wanting to highlight Russell’s voluptuous figure, Hughes used his engineering skills to design an underwire push-up bra and let his staff create it. The bras that Jane Russell were wearing while filming the movie either squashed her breasts or failed to provide support to prevent them from bouncing so Hughes felt the need to change it. The said underwire bra Hughes designed was believed to be worn by Russell while filming The Outlaw which gave her bosom an astonishing figure.

The Outlaw Jane Russell

The movie caused quite a commotion in Hollywood because of Jane Russell’s seductive scenes. As a matter of fact, 20th Century Fox postponed the release date because of the controversies surrounding the movie. However, when it was released in 1943, it became an instant hit and Jane Russell became an instant star. The movie however was only shown in theaters for one week and then it was pulled out due to its violation to the Production Code, but it was enough for The Outlaw to become popular and Jane Russell to become a coveted Hollywood star. In 1946, The Outlaw was finally released widely and it became a box office hit.

Howard Hughes at Controls of His Flying BoatIn Jane Russell’s 1985 autobiography, the actress revealed that Hughes’ underwire push-up bra was so uncomfortable that she only wore it once and that was in her dressing room. She never really wore it while filming The Outlaw. Russell wrote that the contraption hurt so much that she wore it only a few minutes, instead, she wore her own bra, padded the cups with tissues and tightened the straps. Hughes, however, never knew about this. The famed bra is now housed in a Hollywood museum.

General Information on Contact Lenses

Life can be very difficult for a person with vision impairment. Everything is blurry and most of the time, you’re not quite sure what you’re looking at. As a solution, medical experts invented eyeglasses. Now the troubles of the vision-impaired changed from everything being blurry to such hassles as the glasses pinching the bridge of your nose and slipping every time you bend to pick something up. So once again, the experts tried to find a better solution and they came up with the contact lens.

Not only do contact lenses save you from the pinching and slipping, but they also give you a wider range of vision, since there no limiting frames to contend with. Most of those who wear contacts attest to the fact that they’re very comfortable, you won’t even notice you’re wearing them. The high degree of comfort, coupled with people’s desire to spice up their look from time to time, is perhaps what gave rise to the demand for lenses that can be used for purely aesthetic purposes or for both corrective and aesthetic purposes.

Aesthetic Contact Lens

There are celebrities who wear contact lenses simply to change the color of their eyes so they’ll fit specific roles. There are athletes who wear contacts to develop extra sharp vision, which helps them perform better on the field. There are also regular folk who wear contact lenses to spice up their look when they attend costume parties and events such as gaming and cosplay conventions. But whatever your reason is for wearing contacts, you have to make sure you know how to wear them safely.

Woman Choosing Among the first decisions you’ll have to make involves the type of contact lens to buy. There are daily disposables, which you throw away after a single use (for a maximum of eight hours). There are also weekly and monthly disposables, which you throw away after a week or a month of use (8 eight hours at a time). There are extended-wear lenses that you can wear for up to a week straight before you need to remove and wash them. There are ultraviolet-protection lenses that guard your eyes against the harmful rays of the sun. And then there are corneal reshaping lenses that help correct your vision.

Note, though, that not everyone can wear contact lenses. You may have an eye condition that makes it difficult to fit you with lenses, or there may be other reasons why you are not a good candidate for contact lens wear. If you insist on wearing contacts even when advised not to, you’re practically risking an eye infection or worse consequences. This is why it is important to seek an eye doctor’s advice and to heed that advice before you even start choosing contact lenses.

Doctor Approves

If your doctor gives you the go signal to wear contact lenses, he will also give you a prescription, which indicates the measurement of the lenses you should get. Furthermore, the doctor is likely to offer advice as to the wear and care of contacts. Be sure to follow this advice to the letter to ensure the safety of your eyes.

Contact Lens and Self-Esteem: Who Knew They Were Related?

Children With Eye ConditionWhen children are diagnosed with an eye condition, our immediate response as parents is to get them fitted for eyeglasses. When they join schools plays and other social gatherings and then express their desire to wear decorative contact lenses for the occasion, we hesitate to give our approval, concerned that the contact lenses might damage their eyes.

Although both responses are understandable and there’s nothing really wrong with them, you might become more open to the idea of your children wearing contact lenses when you learn that children who wear contacts were found to have high self-esteem in general and a significantly higher self-esteem than those who are made to wear glasses.

 Kids Using Contact Lens

It was a group of researchers from the Stony Brook University School of Medicine who arrived at this conclusion after conducting a study involving over 400 children aged 12 to 17. A set of standardized tests were used to evaluate the children’s self-esteem six years after they enrolled in the study, which was dubbed COMET (Correction of Myopia Evaluation Trial).

The general purpose of the study was to evaluate the effect of wearing contact lenses vs. eyeglasses to correct nearsightedness over at least three years. On the fifth year of the study, the children were given the freedom to decide whether they wanted to continue wearing glasses or get fitted with contact lenses. On the sixth year, the mean amount of nearsightedness among participants was -4.6 diopters and the mean age of the children was 15.3.

Self Esteem Evalutaion

Other than the standardized tests, the researchers also let the participants do a self-evaluation of their self-esteem where different areas of their lives are concerned – scholastic/athletic competence, social acceptance, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and overall feeling of self-worth. The results of both the standardized tests and the self-evaluation were then compared with their baseline scores, which were recorded before they started wearing contact lenses.

So, what did the results show? Basically it showed that those who opted for contact lenses on the fifth year of the study had significantly higher social acceptance, behavioral conduct, and athletic competence at baseline than those who chose to continue wearing glasses. At the end of the sixth year, the contact lens wearers still had much higher scores after adjustments were made for baseline scores and other variables.

Although the study wasn’t very conclusive as to whether it takes a high self-esteem to begin with for a child to decide to wear contact lenses or the act of wearing contact lenses helps increase self-esteem, what’s clear is that the two are directly related. And though the study only focused on nearsighted children who need vision correction, it is quite possible that self-esteem may also be improved even in children who wear contacts for purely cosmetic reasons.

The next time your teenaged kid asks to be allowed to wear contacts to a special event or occasion, you might want to think carefully before saying no. Who knows? It just might help develop their character. Even if it doesn’t, as long as you consult your eye doctor first and take all the necessary precautions, you really don’t have anything to lose, do you?

Daily Disposable Contact Lenses: Helping to Ease Discomfort and Irritation

Wearing Glasses And ContactsIf you want to switch from wearing eyeglasses to wearing a pair of contact lens, but are having a few minor problems with them such as irritation, redness, discomfort, and dryness, you may want to start with daily disposables first. A recent study has shown that daily disposables stand a good chance of clearing up these minor issues.

The study involved 316 contact lens wearers who, upon being refitted with daily disposables, were found to have experienced improvement in their conditions. The prevalence of dryness was reduced by 19 percent and uncomfortable wearing time was reduced by 35 percent.

 Wearing Contact Lens

Wearing daily disposables may be more expensive in the long run as compared to wearing reusable contacts, but if you really want to resolve the issues you suffer from without having to stop wearing contacts, then it may be well worth the extra cost. Once your eyes get used to wearing contacts, you could gradually switch to reusable lenses working your way up to weekly lenses, monthly lenses, and then finally to the standard lenses that can be used for a year.

The relatively high cost involved might tempt you to try wearing daily lenses twice or thrice instead of only once. DON’T. The risk of contamination and permanent eye damage cannot be stressed enough. A study has shown that even when daily disposables were stored in a new contact lens case, there’s a 45% chance they’ll have growths like Staphylococci the following day. Do you really want to risk your eyes in this manner?

Now, here’s a bit of good news for you: There are now water gradient lenses that make contact lens wear so much more comfortable. The inner core of these lenses is 33% water and the water content of the lens reaches up to 80% on the front and back surfaces. In a survey, nine out of ten people who wear this type of contacts report that it’s so comfortable, they can easily forget that they’re wearing a pair.

The advantage of water gradient lenses even goes beyond the added moisture and higher comfort level. They have even been found to have the highest surface slipperiness and breathability among all daily disposable lenses. Although these lenses are currently available only for the correction of nearsightedness, it is expected that they will also be available for farsightedness and astigmatism in the near future.

What if you regularly wear contact lenses purely for cosmetic reasons? Will you not be able to benefit from the advantages offered by water gradient lenses? Well, manufacturers haven’t announced any plan to develop and put out a cosmetic variety of water gradient lenses, but who’s to say they wouldn’t decide to do so very soon? If they feel that there’s a high enough demand for it, it just might happen sooner than you expect.

 Consulting An Eye Doctor

In the meantime, the best thing for you to do is consult your eye doctor as regards the best course of action regarding your contact lens wear and the minor problems you’re facing. No matter how much you enjoy wearing contacts, safety should always come first.

Good News for Contact Lens Wearers: Antimicrobial Lens in the Works

Researching MelimineResearchers in Australia conducted an investigation on an antimicrobial peptide called melimine performs when applied to contact lenses. They measured the performance of melimine-coated contacts when used by both animals and humans. And the general consensus is that those contacts are safe for use and has the potential to effectively reduce the risk of lens-related eye infections. This is indeed welcome news for those who require contacts for vision correction as well as those who simply love wearing decorative lenses.

 Melimine Bacteria

Melimine is a substance that’s produced by our body’s immune system. It has a broad-spectrum antimicrobial capability that can reduce infection and inflammation. This natural activity of the peptide is what gave the Australian group the idea that it could help reduce the risk of eye damage for contact lens wearers. If and when melimine-coated contact lenses do become commercially available, they are expected to become a big hit among contacts wearers, particularly those who are highly concerned with the safety of their eyes.

Exactly how did the study proceed? Well, the lenses were coated with melimine and then applied first to rabbit eyes. This initial process was done for 22 days to determine the safety of the lenses and arrive at a preliminary assessment of the lenses’ performance. The researchers saw no signs of inflammation, toxicity, or any other eye problem. This led them to believe the peptide-coated lenses were safe enough and decided to proceed with the next phase.

Once safety was established, a human clinical trial was put in place. Trial participants were made to wear the lenses on one of their eyes and a regular contact lens on the other eye. They wore the lenses for the standard eight hours. The lenses were then removed and the participants’ eyes examined. They were again examined a week after lens removal and then again after four weeks to make sure delayed toxicity effects are ruled out.

Antimicrobial Coated Contacts The human trial presented no significant difference in the health of the subjects’ eyes (one with regular lens and one with the special lens). The subjects also reported no significant difference in terms of comfort level, awareness, and dryness. The trial also showed that the lenses coated with melimine retained their antimicrobial qualities even after they were worn for eight hours.

Study results are indeed promising, but the researchers all agree there’s still a need for more clinical trials before this new type of lens can be introduced on the market. For one thing, they still need to determine if similar antimicrobial contact lenses can reduce contact lens-related eye problems during extended wear. But now that we are aware of the study and its promising results, we’re pretty sure many contact lens wearers will be anticipating the arrival of these special lenses.

Whether you need vision correction or just want to spice up your look from time to time, antimicrobial lenses that help protect your eyes will surely be something you’ll look forward to wearing. Let’s hope the trials are completed soon so manufacturing can begin.

Identifying the Right Non-Prescription Colored Contacts for You

Colored Contact Lenses Halloween

Nowadays, there is a wide array of lens stores online or in your local community retailing colored lenses without the need for a consumer’s medical prescription.  Most of these non-prescription colored Halloween contacts are used by Halloween partygoers and costume players. As the buyers of these lenses only make use of these for fashion purposes, a prescription is not a requirement.

If this is your first time to purchase non-prescriptive colored contacts and you are a bit skeptical with what fits you best, here are tips to help you.

See an Optometrist

Just because you are only buying non-prescription contacts, doesn’t imply that you need not visit an optometrist anymore. That’s a misconception by most users, mind you. A licensed optometrist will help you identify the right contact size and brand for you. He will examine your eyes to determine if it’s safe for you to use decorative lenses. Being aware of important details regarding devices that would suit your eyes will make your online purchase fast and convenient.

Determine What Contact Color Complements Your Skin

Sad to say not all lens colors may suit you. Your skin tone is one great consideration. If you are dark-skinned, your options are limited to pale colors—lavender and ice blue are great examples. For fair-skinned users, light green and blue contacts will complement well their skin tone well. Actually, people with lighter skin tones have the greatest advantage as most contact colors will complement their skin color. If you have pale and light skin, you’re good with dark colored contacts such as deep green and chocolate brown. As has been mentioned however, any color can complement fair skin; these are only recommendations. If you don’t want to limit yourself with what is suggested, you can experiment and choose one that you feel fully blends with your physique and personality.

Find Costume-Matching Colored Contacts


Aside from color, design is another thing to bear in mind. There are decorative contacts made to match particular costumes. Some of these can be worn without the need for heavy makeup or complicated costumes—two things to resort using if you want to stand out.

Choose a Reputable Lens Store

Mind you, not all stores selling contact lenses are trustworthy. Choosing the more reliable ones increases the chances of you getting what you’ve paid for. Most established suppliers have a website of their own. You get to see product pictures from their sites with sizes and descriptions. They also provide relevant information about their company and their shipment requirements. Aside from that, they also give contact lens cleaning and stowage instructions. If the site you’ve been eyeing doesn’t provide as much information needed, find another one.

Scuba Diving Tips – Why You Shouldn’t Follow Your Bubbles

There are plenty of misconceptions about scuba diving and the rules that govern it. Among the first things you need to do if you want to become a certified diver and keep yourself safe on every dive is to do away with these misconceptions. Perhaps among the most common misconceptions are that you should never go faster than your bubbles and that you could just follow your bubbles when you go back up to the surface.


The first reason why you should ditch these concepts has to do with physics. Bubbles normally expand as they climb to the surface, and as they expand, their buoyancy is increased. If you paid attention in physics class, you’ll know that the increased buoyancy will make the bubbles travel faster towards the surface. You are therefore putting yourself at risk of ascending much faster than the recommended ascent rate of 60 feet per minute if you follow your bubbles.


The second reason why you should refrain from following your bubbles to the surface is that it is almost impossible to do so, especially if there’s poor visibility, a strong current, and several divers ascending at the same time. The third reason is that it’s very likely for you to inadvertently pass the bubble you planned to follow to the surface. When this happens, you’d know that you’re already going too fast even if you have weights with your diving gear, but it will be extremely difficult to slow down.


Finally, you’d do well to note that even the previously recommended ascent rate of 60 feet per minute is now deemed too fast and is only used in emergency situations. The ascent rate that’s now recommended by most dive instructors and dive masters is 30 feet per minute. Even if bubbles travel to the surface at an even 60 feet per minute (which they don’t, as discussed earlier), therefore, they’d still be going faster than the recommended ascent rate. This definitely makes it a bad idea to follow your bubbles to the surface.


Now here’s something very important for you to remember: The danger zone, where the greatest change in pressure occurs, is between 15 feet and the surface. When you reach this point, therefore, it is critical for you to ascend very slowly; it would be wise to go as slow as 10 feet per minute. It is also advisable to stop for 2 to 3 minutes at the 15-feet point before completing the ascent. So, forget the bubbles and focus on following your dive master’s instructions instead.